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Question: Asses why pre-colonial African societies did not develop the slave mode of production ( slavery )


Answer ;Slavery is the social economic system of productio n in which one class of people ( slave mas ters ) use other peopl e ( slave ) in the process of accumulation of wealth . Is a social system which some people tr eated property and forced to work for their Will with minimum means of substance to keep them working . Slavery m o d e of production was another pre capitalist mode of production , according to Karl Marx developed from communalism with increase of development of productive forces and class antagonism . The issue of slavery in Africa shift discussion and elaborated among scholars . However with deep social analysis of pre colonial African societies bypass or skipped the institution of slavery as social institution . It never existed in pre colonial African societies . The following is the reasons why slave as mode of production did not develop in pre colonial African societies;

1 . Existence of low level of productive force in Africa.

Crop cultivation contributed in substance and small scale agriculture continued with nomadic pastoralism and could not settle down morever existence of hunter and gathering societies discouraged slavery .

2 . The practice of slave trade and the abolition was under the influence of outside powers.

Majority of slave in Africa were owned by American and European merchant . In short African slavery master was actually originated by ethic Arabs and European e.g Zanzibar ( Arabs ) West Africa ( Europeans and Arabs )

3 . Element of slavery in Africa was not dominant social system .

The presence of slavery in Egypt , Zanzibar and Islamic societies in West Africa was not granted for African slavery as a whole . E.g During ancient time slavery in Greece and Roman state were more than 30 % - 40 % of a population also in America slave were of considerable number which did not exist in Africa continent and large part of Africa know nothing about slavery

4 . Nature of slave ownership was by state and not common people

Few slave which existed in some African societies E.g Buganda , Mali etc were owned by the government and not common people as it other continent . Therefore slave were found in Head squatters or King court and did not spread to common pople.

5 . Few people called slaves in Africa enjoyed wide freedom and rights .

In most African societies captives were protected by the society , and were incorporated to the member of family and position of leadership .

6 . Absence of clear period and time ;

Interval of when slavery began and ended in Africa still contradict , what was abolished in Africa was slave trade by either Arabs or European and not African slavery .

7 . Nature of African social life respect humanity .

African social system respected human nature and welfare of others people belonging from the same society . Denying somebody right and freedom was regarded by the majority African as evil and was strongly contermined not to continue . In that case slavery as a social Institution was so difficult to emerge .

8 . African societies practiced patriarchal system instead of typically slavery .

Political system was the system which allowed women and children among the war captives or prisoners of the war to survive and get absorbed in the society sructure of th e victorious society and all men were killed .

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